Aqua-Meter Clamp with LoRaWAN

Version: 1.0

Product Description

The Aqua-Meter Clamp measures the flow and temperature in a water pipe using a "Time of Flight" measurement method and transmits the data wirelessly. It is easily attached to the existing water pipe from the outside without the need to interrupt the water supply. The best position is right after the water meter. Due to adjustable transducer positions and innovative software the Aqua-Meter Clamp works with pipe diameters between 15 and 50 mm and it supports all contemporary pipe materials such as PEX, PEX AL, copper, PE, or steel. It registers water consumption from approximately 1 liter/hour and it distinguishes between normal water usage, dripping faucets, stuck toilets, pipe breaks, etc. And alerts the user.

The device meets all the requirements of the European Metering Directive (MID). With a footprint of only 60 mm above the water pipe and a length of 110 mm, the device is very slim and short, making it easy to find a suitable spot to install.

The Aqua-Meter Clamp can be powered either by an USB-C or by two standard AA batteries. Whenever an external power source is available, it is used independently of the inserted batteries.

The device is controlled via LoRaWAN commands and operates as a LoRaWAN Class A device. The use of the device requires LoRaWAN network coverage. Otherwise, you need to install and operate your own LoRaWAN gateway.

Measurement Principle

The water sensor clamp utilizes ultrasonic waves and the "differential time of flight (DTOF)" method to measure water flow. In this method, two ultrasonic transducers, called transducers, are employed to send signals in opposite directions through the pipe and water. The signal sent by the upstream transducer travels along the direction of water flow and is detected by the downstream transducer. The second signal sent by the downstream transducer moves against the direction of water flow, progresses more slowly, and meets the upstream transducer later. The difference in travel time between the two signals is directly proportional to the speed of the water in the pipe and thus the flow rate. To better understand this method, one can imagine it like swimming in the current of a river. By swimming upstream and downstream and comparing the time it takes to cover the same distance in each direction, one can estimate the speed of the water flow in the river. Similarly, in the case of the water sensor clamp, the movement of the transducers generates a wave that serves as a swimmer to estimate the speed of the water flow.

The test signal of the device has a frequency of 1 MHz and is of very low power, making it inaudible and harmless to humans and animals. Furthermore, the sound waves of this high frequency are strongly attenuated by the atmospheric pressure of the air and, in practice, cannot radiate beyond the pipe. Therefore, the water sensor clamp will not disturb people or other devices.

Design of the Sensor

The sensor consists of two main components:

Two small intermediate adapters (14) are required to fix the base to the pipe, which correspond exactly to the diameter of the water pipe. A selection for the important pipe diameters is included with the product. Furthermore, the sensor must be securely mounted to the water pipe using a cable tie or alternatively a hose clamp (not shown in the image).

During operation, the capsule is firmly connected to the base. For maintenance purposes or for battery replacement, it can be safely separated from the base. If the capsule is powered without the base, a corresponding alarm message will be issued, and no water consumption measurement is possible.

Overview of the ultrasonic transducer Overview of the ultrasonic transducer


The installation location and proper attachment of the sensor to the pipe have a decisive influence on the accuracy of the measurement. An unfavorable installation location or incorrect attachment of the sensor can, in extreme cases, result in the sensor not providing any measurement results.

Finding Suitable Installation Locations

(1) For accurate measurement, the water must be free from turbulence and air bubbles. Therefore, the device should not be installed near pipe bends or other water installations such as main shut-off valves, check valves, or pressure reducers. It must be ensured that there is a minimum distance of 20 cm on each side of the pipe bends, etc., and that the installation point does not allow accumulation of small air bubbles, which occur whenever water flows quickly through the pipe. The figure below provides some hints for the best installation position.

Installation instructions for the ultrasonic clamp-on sensor

(2) The pipe at the installation site must be smooth and free of rust, so that there are no air pockets on the outside to disrupt the measurement process. For plastic pipes, cleaning the surface is sufficient, while for metallic pipes, it may be useful to polish them with fine sandpaper.

(3) Lastly, the installation site must be reachable by radio. A stable radio connection is easiest to test by integrating the sensor into the radio network even before the final installation. Details can be found in the following section 'Connection to the Radio Network'.


Preparing Sensor for Installation

It is recommended to connect the sensor to the radio network at the location of installation, but before the final mounting on the water pipe. However, this is not a prerequisite for installation.

  1. From the set of spacers, select the two parts corresponding to the pipe diameter and insert them next to the transducers (1 in the figure below) into the corresponding slots.
  2. The transducers on the sensor base are adjustable using the small handwheel on the side, allowing them to be adapted to different pipe diameters and materials. The transducers can be extended up to 26 mm apart. Table 1 provides the necessary distance in millimeters for various pipe diameters and materials. If the pipe is sheathed (for example, PEX with aluminum sheath or copper with plastic sheath), then the base material from the table should be selected. The distance should be set with an accuracy of +/- 2 mm.

    Adjustable ultrasonic transducers

    Diameter20 mm26 mm33 mm42 mm56 mm
    Steel0 mm5 mm15 mm20 mm26 mm
    Copper0 mm0 mm5 mm13 mm20 mm
    PEX0 mm0 mm5 mm20 mm20 cm
    PP0 mm0 mm5 mm15 mm18 mm
    Table 1: Transducer distances depending on the water pipe used

  3. Remove the red protective film from the contact pads of the transducers. The buffer pads are very sticky and will hold the sensor in place without further fixation. Initially, press the pads only lightly so that they can be repositioned if necessary. If you damage one or both pads while removing them, replacement pads are included with the product.
  4. Paying attention to the flow direction (large arrow on the device's nameplate), attach the sensor to the water pipe and loosely fix it with the cable tie.


Mounting the Sensor on the Pipe

The exact positioning of the sensor on the pipe is crucial for the device's functionality and accuracy. The following variables must be considered:

  1. The sensor must be mounted absolutely parallel to the pipe. The spacers help achieve this goal.
  2. The sensor must have a defined distance from the pipe, which is completely filled by the contact buffers. The spacers also help achieve this goal.
  3. The contact pressure of the sensor must be optimal. This needs to be optimized during installation itself. A positioning aid is available for this purpose.

Position of the Ultrasonic Transducers

After the sensor is powered, an electronic positioning aid is available for optimal alignment.

The positioning aid is activated by pressing the button for three seconds and works like a car's parking aid. The start position is indicated by a solid yellow LED. As the sensor gets closer to the optimal position, the LED color changes faster, and the buzzer beeps more frequently.

The perfect position or contact pressure is indicated by a solid green LED and continuous beeping. A simple press of the button ends the positioning aid. An acceptable positioning is achieved not only with a solid green LED but also when the green LED and buzzer are interrupted only by short pauses.

The positioning aid is activated by pressing the button for three seconds and works like the parking assist in a car. The LED indicates insufficient (red), adequate (yellow), or good (green), and the length of the pause between the tones indicates the 'distance' to the target. The perfect position or the perfect contact pressure is indicated by a continuous green LED and a continuous tone. Sometimes, this position is not achievable. The green LED then indicates when there will be functional measurement results.

The positioning aid can be started at any time during operation. Pressing the button for more than two seconds starts the process without subsequent calibration, and pressing the button for more than three seconds starts the aid with subsequent calibration. A button press ends the process in both cases.

What to Do if the Positioning Aid Fails?

The distances in Table 1 are theoretical optimal values. There can be slight deviations on a real pipe. If the positioning aid does not succeed, a slight adjustment of the transducer distance may help.

Furthermore, the supplied ultrasound gel can be used to achieve an optimal acoustic connection between the sensor and the water pipe.

Especially for steel pipes with a very rough surface, the contact pressure achieved by the cable tie may not be sufficient. In this case, use a hose clamp.

Check in any case:

Special Considerations for Steel Pipes Steel pipes are challenging for the ultrasonic measuring principle for several reasons. The unevenness on the surface can lead to air inclusions despite the buffer pads. The same unevenness on the inside of the pipe can also encourage the accumulation of air bubbles in the water. Therefore, utmost care must be taken in selecting the installation site, adjusting the transducers, and mounting the sensor. If the acoustic aid does not provide satisfactory feedback, a slight shift of the sensor on the pipe and/or the transducer positions may help.

Connection to LoRaWAN Network

This device, with its three keys (Dev EUI, Join EUI, Join Key), needs to be registered with a LoRaWAN network operator that covers the device's location with radio signals.

If you purchased the device directly from Aqua-Scope's online shop, use the email address used for the purchase and the public device key (Dev EUI) on the website You will receive a message with all three keys to the provided email address. The public key is also printed on the device as a 16-digit number and as a QR code for scanning. The QR code and 16-digit number are also printed on the outer packaging.

If you purchased the device from a dealer, the dealer will provide the three keys. If they do not, please contact by email.

Immediately upon inserting the batteries or connecting a power supply, the device will attempt to connect to the LoRaWAN network using the three keys you provided. The LEDs will blink during this process. After approximately 25 seconds, this process, called 'JOIN,' will either be successful or aborted. In the latter case, the device immediately enters sleep mode.

If, for any reason, the sensor loses connection to the server, an automatic reconnection process, called 'Rejoin,' will take place. This process repeats whenever the device attempts to send a message to the LoRaWAN network.

Pressing the button always initiates a LoRaWAN communication, leading to a 'Rejoin' as explained above. Please observe the Duty Cycle regulation—sending messages or Rejoins too quickly in succession may be ignored by the LoRaWAN network.

Operating the Device

Sensor Notifications

The sensor regularly sends its status via LoRaWAN. The transmission frequency can be freely chosen using configuration parameter 29. The factory setting is 900 seconds = 15 minutes.

The status message contains the following data, which are encoded according to the LoRaWAN command structure - see below.

Immediately after booting, an initial message with the firmware and hardware version is sent according to the LoRaWAN command structure.

Alarm Messages and Their Causes

The following alarm messages are reported according to the LoRaWAN command structure.


The device has a three-color LED (red/green/yellow) directly under the button on the top of the device. Different colors and blinking sequences indicate the operating states of the sensor.

Button Operation

Different commands can be triggered by pressing the button for varying lengths of time. After the button is pressed, the device beeps every second, allowing for easy estimation of the press duration.

Power Supply

The device can be powered either through an external USB-C power supply or by using two off-the-shelf AA batteries. Whenever an external power source is available, it will be used independently of the inserted batteries.

In battery operation, power consumption must be minimized, leading to the following changes:

All other functions of the device, such as leak detection, drip detection, etc., continue to operate.

LoRaWAN Payload Commands (Payload Format)

LoRaWAN commands can be daisy chained into the payload up to the defined maximum payload size of 51 bytes. This mean that for all commands sent to defined number of bytes in the payload is required to avoid misinterpretation of command and/or command values in the receiver side. All uplink and downlink commands use FPort=10.

LoRaWAN Configuration Parameters

All Configuration Parameters are 2 Byte values that can be set and read out using LoRaWAN 'Configuration Get' and 'Configuration Set' commands. Here is an overview of the configuration parameters currently used:

Parameter 1 (0x01): System Register (Default: 0x0be4 = dec 3044)

The bitmap defines the general behavior of the device. Bit = 1 means function enabled, and Bit = 0 means function disabled.

Parameter 3 (0x03): LoRaWAN Register (Default: 0x0ffd = dec 4093)

The bitmap defines which commands are accepted on the LoRaWAN communication channel. Bit = 1 means function enabled, bit = 0 disables function

The upper 16 Bit of the register are not accessible via LoRaWAN but from serial console or WIFI only (whatever is available):

Parameter 5 (0x05): Ultrasonic Transducer Signal Strength (Default: 0x0000 = dec 0)

This value defines the signal amplification needed to achieve good sensor results. This value depends on the quality of the acoustic coupling and the pipe material. It will be set during calibration C01 resp. C0B. Do not touch this value unless you know what you do.

Parameter 6 (0x06): Ultrasonic ADC RX Delay (Default: 0x0000 = dec 0)

This value defines the delay between sending out the USS signal and receiving it back. The value depends on the size and the material of the pipe and will be set during calibration C02 resp C0C. Do not touch this value unless you know what you do.

Parameter 7 (0x07): Ultrasonic Total Time of Flight (Default: 0x0000 = dec 0)

This value defines the total time of flight in ns for a USS signal. This is an indicator for the pipe diameter and to a lesser extent the pipe material. The value is set during calibration C02 resp. C0C

Parameter 8 (0x08): Liter Translation (Default: 0x03e8 = dec 1000)

The value of 1000 is an arbitrary value to translate the measured velocity of water into liters. Ths translation depends on the inner pipe diameter and this value can correct the translation.

Parameter 9 (0x09): Jamming Toilet (Default: 0x00c8 = dec 200)

This parameter defines the max time in seconds for 10 consecutive small water consumption event typical for jamming toilet flap. The default value of 200 means that the 11th event with a given 200 seconds time interval will cause a jamming alarm sent as uplink message. If your home has heavy water usage in general you may want to increase this value to avoid false alarms but keep in mind that the system will be less sensitive to find possible malfunctions.

Parameter 10 (0x0a): Max. Water Take Time (Default: 0x0384 = dec 900)

A Water Flow longer than this value will cause a Usage Alarm The value needs to be defined in 0,43 * seconds. This means a desired cut-off of 15 minutes results in a value of 2093.

Parameter 11 (0x0b): Frost Warn Threshold (Default: 0x0028 = dec 40)

A frost alarm is sent as uplink message when the current temperature falls below the threshold. The threshold value is accepted in 1/10 degree Celsius. The default value is set to 4 degree Celsius.

Parameter 12 (0x0c): Minimum Flow time to report (Default: 0x0002 = dec 2)

Any value above zero will suppress any explicit EOF report even when EOF reporting is enabled in the systems register.

Parameter 13 (0x0d): Ultrasonic Measurement Interval (Default: 0x0008 = dec 8)

This value defines how often the USS sub-system will detect a flow. More measurements per second means more power consumption but more measurement precision too.

Parameter 14 (0x0e): Ultrasonic Noise Threshold (Default: 0x0000 = dec 0)

This value defines the minimal threshold between noise and drip detection as dTOF in ps. The lower this value the better because the more sensitive the device operates. Compared to the Leakage mode the device will be less sensitive in meter mode. This value be be set during calibration C03 resp. C0D.

Parameter 15 (0x0f): Flow Detection Threshold (Default: 0x0fa0 = dec 4000)

This value determined the minimum velocity of a water flow to be recognized as valid water flow. For metering purposed even flow below this threshold will be counted but no explicit BOF or EOF report is generated.

Parameter 16 (0x10): High Threshold for Temperature Alarm (Default: 0x01f4 = dec 500)

If the measured temperature rises beyond this level a temperature alarm is issued. Dropping below the level clears the alarm

Parameter 17 (0x11): Drip Length Threshold (Default: 0x001e = dec 30)

Once the DTOF rises above the noise threshold (Parameter 14) but remains below the flow threshold (Parameter 15) there is a delay defined with this parameter. After this time a Drip Alarm is sent. The drip alarm is cleared either when a real water flow is detected or the dTOF falls below the noise threshold.

Parameter 18 (0x12): Zero Drift Offset (Default: 0x0000 = dec 0)

Zero Drift is an effect of USS measurement sensors. Over time the dTOF on still water moves away. The zero drift offset compensates this error increasing the accuracy and sensitivity of the device. This read-only value shows the current offset in ps to reach the zero line and its constantly updated.

Parameter 19 (0x13): Alarm Enable/Disable (Default: 0xd806 = dec 55302)

The bitmap defines which alarm type is active and will cause an alarm status command 0x0b. Bit = 1 means function enabled, bit = 0 disables the function. The different alarm types are shown in the section 'LoRaWAN Alarm Types'.

Parameter 21 (0x15): Time Delay in Transducer (Default: 0x0000 = dec 0)

This parameter represents the assumed time delay of the USS signal outside water. It depends on the geometry of the transducers, the geometry and material constants of the pipe, and its inner and outer coating. This value is used for the estimation of the pipe diameter and pipe material after calibration and can be changed to align with user-provided information on these constants. The value is device-specific.

Parameter 22 (0x16): Threshold for Intense Flow Alarm (Default: 0x0096 = dec 150)

If the Velocity of the water stream rises above this level for a time defined in config parameter 23, an intense flow alarm will be issued. The value is given in 1000 * ps.

Parameter 23 (0x17): Duration for Intense Flow Alarm (Default: 0x001e = dec 30)

If the Velocity of the water stream rises above the level defined in config parameter 22 for a time period defined in this configuration parameter, an intense flow alarm will be issued. The value is given in seconds.

Parameter 24 (0x18): Threshold for Negative Flow Alarm (Default: 0x03e8 = dec 1000)

If the Velocity of the water stream rises above a negative level for a time defined in config parameter 25, an intense flow alarm will be issued. The value is given in 1000 * ps.

Parameter 25 (0x19): Duration for Negative Flow Alarm (Default: 0x001e = dec 30)

If the Velocity of the water stream rises above the level defined in config parameter 24 for a time period defined in this configuration parameter, an negative flow alarm will be issued. The value is given in seconds.

Parameter 26 (0x1a): Correction Factor No-PRV Algorithm (Default: 0x03e8 = dec 1000)

This correction factor translates the measures water flow of the No-PRV algorithm to a liter value. Can be changed to adapt to different pipe diameters or pipe system layouts.

Parameter 28 (0x1c): Active Communication Channels (Default: 0x0000 = dec 0)

This register is bit-mapped and defines which communication channels of the device are active. Te following bits are recognized:

Parameter 29 (0x1d): Reporting Interval (Default: 0x0384 = dec 900)

This parameter defines the interval in seconds the device automatically reports sensor values and heartbeat as an uplink message.

Parameter 30 (0x1e): Heartbeat Interval (Default: 0x003c = dec 60)

This parameter defines the interval in seconds the device automatically reports sensor values and heartbeat as an uplink message.

Scope of Delivery

Technical Data - Part 1

Technical Data - Part 2 (MID/OIML-R49)

Support and Contact

Should you encounter any problem, please give us the opportunity to address it before returning this product. Please check our website and particularly the support section for answers and help. You can also send a message to

While the information in this manual has been compiled with great care, it may not be deemed an assurance of product characteristics. Aqua-Scope shall be liable only to the degree specified in the terms of sale and delivery. The reproduction and distribution of the documentation and software supplied with this product and the use of its contents is subject to written authorization from Aqua-Scope. We reserve the right to make any alterations that arise as the result of technical development.

Declaration of Conformity

Aqua-Scope Technology OÜ, Sakala 7-2, 10141 Tallinn, Republic of Estonia, declares that this radio emitting device works on the following frequences:

Български С настоящото Aqua-Scope Technology OÜ декларира, че този тип радиосъоръжение AQMLWE01 е в съответств ие с Директива 2014/53/ЕС. Цялостният текст на ЕС декларацията за съответствие може да се намери н а следния интернет адрес:

Čeština Tímto Aqua-Scope Technology OÜ prohlašuje, že typ rádiového zařízení AQMLWE01 je v souladu se směrnicí 2014/53/EU. Úplné znění EU prohlášení o shodě je k dispozici na této internetové adrese:

Dansk Hermed erklærer Aqua-Scope Technology OÜ, at radioudstyrstypen AQMLWE01 er i overensstemmelse med direktiv 2014/53/EU. EUoverensstemmelseserklæringens fulde tekst kan findes p følgende internetadresse:

Deutsch Hiermit erklärt Aqua-Scope Technology OÜ, dass der Funkanlagentyp AQMLWE01 der Richtlinie 2014/53/EU entspricht. Der vollständige Text der EU-Konformitätserklärung ist unter der folgenden Internetadresse verfügbar:

Eesti Käesolevaga deklareerib Aqua-Scope Technology OÜ, et kesolev raadioseadme tp AQMLWE01 vastab direktiivi 2014/53/EL nuetele. ELi vastavusdeklaratsiooni tielik tekst on kttesaadav jrgmisel internetiaadressil:

English Hereby, Aqua-Scope Technology OÜ declares that the radio equipment type AQMLWE01 is in compliance with Directive 2014/53/EU. The full text of the EU declaration of conformity is available at the following internet address:

Español Por la presente, Aqua-Scope Technology OÜ declara que el tipo de equipo radioeléctrico AQMLWE01 es conforme con la Directiva 2014/53/UE. El texto completo de la declaracin UE de conformidad está disponible en la direccin Internet siguiente:

Ελληνικά Με την παρούσα ο/η Aqua-Scope Technology OÜ, δηλώνει ότι ο ραδιοεξοπλισμός AQMLWE01 πληροί την οδηγία 2014/53/ΕΕ. Το πλήρες κείμενο της δήλωσης συμμόρ φωσης ΕΕ διατίθεται στην ακόλουθη ιστοσελίδα στο διαδίκτυο:

Français Le soussigné, Aqua-Scope Technology OÜ, déclare que l'équipement radioélectrique du type AQMLWE01 est conforme la directive 2014/53/UE. Le texte complet de la déclaration UE de conformité est disponible l'adresse internet suivante:

Hrvatski Aqua-Scope Technology OÜ ovime izjavljuje da je radijska oprema tipa AQMLWE01 u skladu s Direktivom 2014/53/EU. Cjeloviti tekst EU izjave o sukladnosti dostupan je na sljedećoj internetskoj adresi:

Italiano Il fabbricante, Aqua-Scope Technology OÜ, dichiara che il tipo di apparecchiatura radio AQMLWE01 conforme alla direttiva 2014/53/UE. Il testo completo della dichiarazione di conformit UE disponibile al seguente indirizzo Internet:

Latviešu Ar šo Aqua-Scope Technology OÜ deklarē, ka radioiekārta AQMLWE01 atbilst Direktīvai 2014/53/ES. Pilns ES atbilstības deklarācijas teksts ir pieejams šādā interneta v ietnē: Lietuvių Aš, Aqua-Scope Technology OÜ, patvirtinu, kad radijo įrenginių tipas AQMLWE01 atitinka Direktyvą 2014/53/ES. Visas ES atitikties deklaracijos tekstas prieinamas šiuo internet adresu:

Magyar Aqua-Scope Technology OÜ igazolja, hogy a AQMLWE01 típus rádiberendezés megfelel a 2014/53/EU irányelvnek. Az EUmegfelelőségi nyilatkozat teljes szövege elérhető a következő internetes címen:

Malti B'dan, Aqua-Scope Technology OÜ, niddikjara li dan it-tip ta' tagħmir tar-radju AQMLWE01 huwa konformi madDirettiva 2014/53/UE. It-test kollu tad-dikjarazzjoni ta' konformit tal-UE huwa disponibbli f'dan l-indirizz talInternet li ġej:

Nederlands Hierbij verklaar ik, Aqua-Scope Technology OÜ, dat het type radioapparatuur AQMLWE01 conform is met Richtlijn 2014/53/EU. De volledige tekst van de EUconformiteitsverklaring kan worden geraadpleegd op het volgende internetadres:

Polski Aqua-Scope Technology OÜ niniejszym oświadcza, że typ urządzenia radiowego AQMLWE01 jest zgodny z dyrektywą 2014/53/UE. Pełny tekst deklaracji zgodnośc I UE jest dostępny pod następującym adre sem internetowym:

Português O(a) abaixo assinado(a) Aqua-Scope Technology OÜ declara que o presente tipo de equipamento de rádio AQMLWE01 está em conformidade com a Diretiva 2014/53/UE. O texto integral da declarao de conformidade está disponível no seguinte endereo de Internet:

Română Prin prezenta Aqua-Scope Technology OÜ declară că tipul de echipamente AQMLWE01 este în conformitate cu Directiva 2014/53/UE. Textul integral al declarației UE de conformitate este disponibil la următoarea adresă internet:

Slovensko Aqua-Scope Technology OÜ potrjuje, da je tip radijske opreme AQMLWE01 skladen z irektivo 2014/53/EU. Celotno besedilo izjave EU o skladnosti je na voljo na naslednjem spletnem naslovu:

Slovensky Aqua-Scope Technology OÜ týmto vyhlasuje, že rádiové zariadenie typu AQMLWE01 je v slade so smernicou 2014/53/EÚ. Úplné EÚ vyhlásenie o zhode je k dispozícii na tejto internetovej adrese:

Soumi Aqua-Scope Technology OÜ vakuuttaa, että radiolaitetyyppi AQMLWE01 on direktiivin 2014/53/EU mukainen. EUvaatimustenmukaisuusvakuutuksen täysimittainen teksti on saatavilla seuraavassa internetosoitteessa:

Svenska Härmed försäkrar Aqua-Scope Technology OÜ att denna typ av radioutrustning AQMLWE01 verensstmmer med direktiv 2014/53/EU. Den fullständiga texten till EUförsäkran om verensstämmelse finns på följande webbadress:

Disposal Guidelines

Do not dispose of electrical appliances as unsorted municipal waste, use separate collection facilities. Contact your local government for information regarding the collection systems available. If electrical appliances are disposed of in landfills or dumps, hazardous substances can leak into the groundwater and get into the food chain, damaging health and well-being.